Antikythera mechanism | ||

Type | analogous mechanical calculator, manual handling | |

Year | between 3rd and 1st century BC | |

Builder | unknown | |

Location | Ancient Greece (possibly Rhodes?) | |

Functionality | position of sun and moon in the zodiac, moon phases, calendaric calculations (Greek, Egyptian), prediction of lunar and solar eclipses, perhaps a geocentric planetarium (hypothetical) | |

Speciality | oldest known mechanical calculator | |

Weblinks | The Antikythera mechanism, Antikythera mechanism (Wikipedia) | |

Videos |
overview about functionality and usage,
eclipse predictions,
calculation of the lunar orbit in the Antikythera mechanism | |

Schickard calculator | ||

Type | digital mechanical calculator, manual handling | |

Year | 1623 | |

Builder | Wilhelm Schickard, mechanic: Johann Pfister | |

Location | Tübingen, Württemberg | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, extracting the square root | |

Speciality | first digital mechanical calculator | |

Weblinks | ★The Schickard Calculator from 1623 | |

Videos |
addition and subtraction,
multiplication,
division,
calculation of lunar orbits per solar year, Wilhelm Schickard - inventor of the first mechanical calculator | |

Pascaline | ||

Type | digital mechanical calculator, manual handling | |

Year | 1642 | |

Builder | Blaise Pascal | |

Location | Rouen, Normandy, France | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction | |

Speciality | oldest still existing digital mechanical calculator | |

Weblinks | Pascal's calculator (Wikipedia) | |

Videos | How the Pascaline Works | |

Leibniz calculator | ||

Type | Leibniz wheel calculator (Stepped reckoner) | |

Year | 1673 (Leibniz wheel) / 1694 (calculator) | |

Builder | Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz | |

Location | Paris, Hanover, London | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division | |

Speciality | First Leibniz wheel calculator. This technology was used for almost three centuries for mechanical calculators. | |

Weblinks | - | |

Videos | - | |

Poleni calculator (prototype) | ||

Type | pinwheel calculator | |

Year | 1709 | |

Builder | Giovanni Poleni | |

Location | Padua | |

Functionality | - | |

Speciality | not working prototype, destroyed by Poleni himself | |

Weblinks | - | |

Videos | - | |

calculator of Anton Braun | ||

Type | pinwheel calculator | |

Year | 1727 | |

Builder | Anton Braun (German Wikipedia) | |

Location | Vienna, Austria | |

Functionality | - | |

Speciality | first faultlessly functioning pinwheel calculator, most likely inspired by Poleni's design | |

Weblinks | - | |

Videos | - | |

calculator of Philipp Matthäus Hahn | ||

Type | Leibniz wheel calculator | |

Year | 1770 - 1773 | |

Builder | Philipp Matthäus Hahn | |

Location | Kornwestheim, Württemberg | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division | |

Speciality | first faultlessly functioning Leibniz wheel calculator | |

Weblinks | - | |

Videos | - | |

calculator of Johann Helfrich Müller | ||

Type | Leibniz wheel calculator | |

Year | 1782 - 1784 | |

Builder | Johann Helfrich (von) Müller | |

Location | Göttingen / Darmstadt | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division | |

Speciality | some improvements compared to Hahn's calculator | |

Weblinks | - | |

Videos | - | |

Arithmomètre | ||

Type | Leibniz wheel calculator with movable result accumulator for long multiplications | |

Year | patented 1820, serial production from 1851 until 1915 | |

Builder | 1820 - 1870 Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar 1870 - 1887 Thomas de Colmar's son and grandson 1887 - 1902 Louis Payen 1902 - 1915 Louis Payen's widow 1915 Alphonse Darras | |

Location | Colmar | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division | |

Speciality | first commercially successful industrially manufactured mechanical calculator | |

Weblinks | Arithmometer | |

Videos | How the Arithmometer Works | |

Odhner arithmometer | ||

Type | pinwheel calculator | |

Year | 1875 - 1970 | |

Builder | Willgodt Theophil Odhner | |

Location | 1875 - 1918 St. Petersburg, Russia 1918 - 1970 Göteborg, Sweden | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, extracting the square and cubic root | |

Speciality | - | |

Weblinks | ★US Patent No. 209,416 – Improvement in Calculating Machines (October 1878)
★Calculating with Mechanical Calculators | |

Videos | How the Original Odhner pinwheel calculator works, Multiplication | |

Burkhardt arithmometer | ||

Type | Leibniz wheel calculator | |

Year | since 1885 | |

Builder | Arthur Burkhardt (German Wikipedia) | |

Location | Glashütte, Saxony | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division | |

Speciality | derived from the Thomas arithmometer, first German mechanical calculator in serial production | |

Weblinks | - | |

Videos | - | |

Comptometer | ||

Type | mechanische Rechenmaschine mit Tastatureingabe | |

Year | ab 1887 | |

Builder | Dorr E. Felt | |

Location | Chicago | |

Functionality | primarily addition and subtraction, multiplication and division also possible | |

Speciality | The Comptometer was the first commercially successful key-driven mechanical calculator, patented in the United States. | |

Weblinks | Comptometer | |

Videos | How the Comptometer Works | |

Brunsviga | ||

Type | pinwheel calculator | |

Year | 1892 - 1969 | |

Builder | Brunsviga Maschinenwerke | |

Location | Brunswick, Germany | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, extracting the square and cubic root | |

Speciality | Since 1892 the Odhner arithmometer was manufactured under licence in Brunswick under the brand name Brunsviga. The calculators later were further developed independently. More than 500,000 Brunsviga calculators were manufactured. | |

Weblinks | - | |

Videos | Brunsviga B – Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Square Root How Math Works: Inside a Brunsviga | |

Curta I / Curta II | ||

Type | handheld mechanical calculator with Leibniz wheel | |

Year | 1947 until 1970 | |

Builder | Curt Herzstark | |

Location | Liechtenstein | |

Functionality | addition, subtraction, multiplication, division | |

Speciality | last generation of mechanical calculators at the top of that technology before they were replaced by electronic devices | |

Weblinks | The CURTA Calculator Page, Curta (Wikipedia) | |

Videos | CURTA Mechanical Calculator Demonstration (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), CURTA Calculator Assembly (German) |